NAFLD/NASH is a sex dimorphic disease, with a general higher prevalence in men. Women are at reduced risk of NAFLD compared to men in fertile age. Sexual category, sex hormones and gender habits interact with numerous NAFLD factors including cytokines, stress, and environmental factors and alter the risk profiles and phenotypes of NAFLD.
In their review, P. Burra et al. (University Hospital of Padua, Italy) summarise the last findings about the influence of sex on epidemiology, pathogenesis, progression in cirrhosis, indication for liver transplantation and alternative therapies, including life styles modification and pharmacological strategies.